Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences
Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Auckland
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences
Department of Pharmacology & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Auckland

Medicines List

Name Mechanism Indication Adverse_effects
acetylcysteine generation of glutathione paracetamol poisoning nausea
activated charcoal adsorption of drugs in gut increase drug elimination and reduce drug absorption black stools
alendronic acid bisphosphonate osteoporosis, Paget's disease oesophageal reactions, abdominal pain and distension
aluminium hydroxide gastric acid suppresion dyspepsia constipation
amiloride diuretic, sodium channel blocker hypertension hyperkalaemia
amiodarone potassium channel blocker anti-arrhythmic pulmonary fibrosis; hypthyroidism; hyperthyroidism
amitriptyline amine neurotransmitter uptake blocker; sodium channel blocker anti-depressant dry mouth; urinary retention
amphetamine amine neurotransmitter release (none) hypertension; tachycardia
andexanet binding to rivaroxaban or apixaban rivaroxaban or apixaban overdose none reported
arsenic inhibition of pyruvate dehyrogenase (none) vomiting; encephalopathy; death
aspirin reduces prostaglandin production by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase prevention of cardiovascular events bleeding
atenolol beta adrenoceptor antagonist hypertension, angina, cardiac arrhthymias Bronchospasm
atropine muscarinic antagonist (none) dry mouth; urinary retention
benzylpenicillin antibacterial bacterial infections hypersensitivity; anaemia; leucopenia; thrombocytopenia
benzylpiperazine (BZP) amine neurotransmitter release (none) hypertension; tachycardia
bevacizumab binds vascular endothelial growth factor cancer bleeding, hypertension
bleomycin induces DNA breaks cancer pneumonitis
busulfan DNA cross-linking conditioning prior to bone marrow transplant veno-occlusive disease
carbamazepine sodium channel blocker seizures CNS symptons
carbon monoxide binding to haemoglobin (none) death
cetuximab EFGR mAb squamous cell head & neck, EGFR+ colorectal cancer Patients must receive an antihistamine and a corticosteroid at least one hour before infusion
chloroquine inhibits the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, discoid lupus erythematosus hepatitis, cardiomyopathy, hallucination
ciclosporin calcineurin inhibitor autoimmunity/transplantation Too many to mention
cilazapril angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor hypertension dry cough, angiodema
cimetidine histamine-2 receptor antagonist gastric acid hypersecretion diarrhoea; constipation
ciprofloxacin gyrase inhibitor bacterial infection GI symptoms
cisplatin DNA cross-linking of purine bases testicular cancer; ovarian cancer nausea & vomiting; bone marrow suppression; peripheral neuropathy
clonidine alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist hypertension hypotension
clopidogrel Irreversibly inhibits ADP binding to the P2Y12 receptor on platelets prevention of thromboembolism after percutaneous coronary intervention  bleeding
codeine metabolism in the liver to morphine which is a full opioid agonist mild to moderate pain; diarrhoea; non-productive cough respiratory depression, nausea and vomiting, constipation
crizotinib ALK inhibitor ALK positive non small cell lung cancer Vision problems (Blurred vision, double vision or increased sensitivity to light)
cyanide inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase (none) death
cyclophosphamide DNA cross-linking of guanine lymphoma nausea & vomiting; bone marrow suppression; hair loss
dabrafenib B-Raf inhibitor cancer - melanoma nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, diarrhoea
debrisoquine prevents release of noradrenaline antihypertensive. No longer used. Used now for phenotyping CYP2D6
desferoxamine iron chelating agent iron overdose nausea
dexamethasone antiinflammatory corticosteroid inflammation; autoimmunity insomnia
dexmedetomidine alpha2 agonist sedation bradycardia
diazepam positive allosteric modulator at GABAa receptors anxiety drowsiness, sedation
diclofenac cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition inflammation gastrointestinal
digoxin NaK-ATPase inhibitor atrial fibrillation nausea; cardiac arrythmias; visual disturbance
digoxin specific F(ab) binding to digoxin digoxin overdose hypokalaemia
doxorubicin topoisomerase inhibitor cancer myelosuppression, alopecia, GI symptoms
doxycycline ribosomal protein synthesis inhibitor bacterial infection GI symptoms
edetate disodium calcium lead, mercury, arsenic chelating agent lead, mercury, arsenic poisoning nausea
enalapril angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor hypertension; heart failure hypotension; dry cough
ergotamine vasoconstrictor (alpha-adrenergic?) migraine nausea;  gangrene
erlotonib EGFR inhibitor non small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer Rash
erythromycin ribosomal protein synthesis inhibitor bacterial infection GI symptoms
erythromycin macrolide antibacterial bacterial infections nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, 
ethanol CNS function modifier methanol poisoning incoordination; cognitive impairment
ethinyloestradiol levonorgestrel suppresses pituitary gonadotrophin release, inhibiting follicular maturation and preventing ovulation.  oral contraception venous thromboembolism
ethylene glycol formation of oxalic acid (none) renal toxicity
etoposide topoisomerase inhibitor cancer myelosuppression, alopecia, GI symptoms
felodipine calcium channel blocker hypertension, angina flushing, headache, palpitation, dizziness, fatigue, gravitational oedema
fenoterol beta-2 agonist asthma tachycardia, tremor, headache
fluconazole inhibits fungal  menbrane synthesis fungal infection GI symptoms
flumazenil benzodiazepine receptor antagonist benzodiazepine overdose nausea
fluoxetine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor depression suicidal ideation, anxiety
fomepizole inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning headache; nausea
frusemide inhibits renal tubular Na re-absorption oedema; heart failure hypotension; hypokalaemia
fuller's earth adsorption of drugs in gut increase drug elimination and reduce drug absorption
gefitinib inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor lung cancer skin rash
gentamicin ribosomal protein synthesis inhibitor sepsis nephrotoxicity; ototoxicity
glipizide pancreatic beta cell stimulant of insulin release diabetes hypoglycaemia
haloperidol dopaminergic receptor antagonist schizophrenia extra-pyramidal signs and symptoms
hydroxocobalamin binding to cyanide cyanide poisoning none reported
ibuprofen cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition inflammation GI symptoms
idarucizumab F(ab) binding to dabigatran dabigatran overdose none reported
imatinib inhibits BCR-ALK and KIT tryosine kinases chronic myelogenous leukaemia;  gastrointestinal stroma tumours GI symptoms
insulin insulin replacement diabetes hypoglycaemia
ipecacuhana induction of emesis oral poisoning not effective for poison removal
irinotecan Inhibits DNA topoisomerase I and interferes with DNA replication metastatic colorectal cancer delayed diarrohea, neutropenia and acute cholinergic syndrome
ketamine NMDA antagonist anaesthesia hallucinations
ketoconazole Inhibits fungal CYP51A1 preventing synthesis of ergosterol antifungal local irritation and hypersensitivity reactions
lidocaine sodium channel blocker anti-arrhythmic dizziness; paraesthesia
loperamide reduces gut mobility diarrhoea GI symptoms
losartan angiotensin receptor antagonist hypertension hypotension, dizziness
MDMA ("ecstasy"); 3,4-Methyl​enedioxy​methamphetamine amine neurotransmitter release (none) hypertension; tachycardia
methanol CNS function modifier (none) blindness
methotrexate dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor cancer myelosuppression, GI symptoms
metronidazole cysteine bearing enzyme inhibitor bacterial infection GI symptoms
morphine mu-opioid receptor agonist analgesia nausea; constipation; respiratory depression
naloxone opioid receptor antagonist opioid overdose nausea
neostigmine anti-cholinesterase reversal of muscle relaxation salivation; diarrhoea
nifedipine calcium channel blocker hypertension oedema, headache
nortriptyline inhibit NA and 5HT reuptake depression sedation, anticholinergic effects
omeprazole irreversible inhibition of the H+/K+-ATPase (proton pump) in the gastric parietal cells  gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer nausea, vomiting, 
organophosphate anti-cholinesterase (none) salivation; diarrhoea
osimertinib mutant EGFR inhibitor T790M  EGFR mutation positive non small cell lung cancer Decrease in white blood cells (total number; cells needed to fight infection)
paclitaxel antimicrotubule drug cancer myelosuppression, alopecia, GI symptoms, neurotoxicity
pancuronium acetylcholine receptor blockade at neuromuscular junction anaesthesia muscle relaxation weakness, respiratory depression
paracetamol POX-inhibitor? Cannabinoid receptor agonist? analgesia; fever hepatic damage
paraquat superoxide anion (none) pulmonary fibrosis
PB2452 binding to ticagrelor ticagrelor overdose none reported
penicillamine copper, mercury chelating agent Wilson's disease; copper, mercury poisoning nausea
phenytoin sodium channel blocker anti-arrhythmic ataxia; gingival hypertrophy
phytomenadione (vitamin K) warfarin antagonist bleeding due to warfarin hypotension; neonatal jaundice
pralidoxime cholinesterase re-activator organophosphate anti-cholinesterase poisoning nausea
prednisone/prednisolone anti-inflammatory corticosteroid asthma; rheumatoid arthritis hypertension; glucose intolerance; psychiatric disturbance
probenecid renal tubular blocking agent gout, adjunct to beta lactam antibiotics treatment GI symptoms
propofol GABA receptors sedation, anaesthesia respiratry depression, hypotension
propranolol beta-adrenoceptor antagonist hypertension; angina hypotension; bradycardia; fatigue; cold extremities
quetiapine dopamine and 5HT receptor antagonist psychosis dry mouth, dizziness, drowsiness
ranitidine histamine H2-receptor antagonist, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease diarrhoea, headache, dizziness
remifentanil mu opioid analgesia respiratry depression, itch, nausea,sedation
rifampicin inhibitor of bacterial RNA synthesis tuberculosis; brucellosis nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, alterations of liver function, headache, dizziness, chills, fever
salbutamol beta-2 agonist asthma tachycardia, tremor, headache
salicylate COX inhibition analgesia; fever bleeding; gastrointestinal distress; tinnitus; acidosis
simvastatin HMG CoA reductase inhibitor prevention of cardiovascular events gastro-intestinal disturbances, altered liver function tests, 
spirinolactone aldosterone receptor antagonist hypertension drowsiness, dizziness
succimer lead, mercury, arsenic chelating agent lead, mercury, arsenic poisoning nausea
sunitinib vascular tyrosine kinase inhibitor cancer bleeding, hypertension
tacrolimus calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant diarrhoea; constipation
tamoxifen oestrogen receptor anatagonist breast cancer menopausal symptons
terfenadine anti-histamine None. Withdrawn cardiac arrhythmia
thalidomide immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity multiple myeloma  vomiting, dry mouth, dyspepsia, constipation, bradycardia
theophylline adenosine receptor antagonist; phosphodiesterase inhibitor asthma; COPD nausea; tachycardia
tramadol mu receptors, spinal serotonin analgesia respiratory depression, nausea
trametinib MEK1/2 inhibitor melanoma Increased Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
trastuzumab human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 binding monoclonal antibody breast cancer infusion reactions
verapamil calcium channel blocker hypertension hypotension, dizziness
vismodegib Smoothened antagonist basal cell carcinoma muscle spasms
warfarin inhibits vitamin K epoxide reductase oral anti-coagulant bleeding